Atlas of livestock parasites
digitized collection of microscopical preparations

Atlas of Parasites Contents Information sources Glossary Administration

Schistosoma bovis

Category:


Species:
Endoparasite


Description:
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Trematode

"blood fluke"

Distribution: Southern Europe, southern Asia, and Africa.

Host: Most important species are found in the portal mesenteric veins of the host. Several species infect ruminants, camels, horses, and pigs, including S. bovis, S. mattheei, and S. japonicum. Blood vessels; Schistosoma bovis lives in the portal and mesenteric veins, while S. matthei occupies vessels of the intestine as well as the veins of the urogenital tract and the stomach.

Life Cycle: Indirect trematode life cycle, there is no second intermediate host in the life cycle. Intermediate hosts are aquatic snails. Eggs in host feces hatch in water, releasing the miracidia, which enter the snail intermediate host. After further development and multiplication, the immature forms furcocercariae leave the snail  to swim in water, finally penetrating the skin of hosts. Immature infective forms may also infect cattle by ingestion through drinking water.

Diagnosis: The sexes are separate !!! Adults range between 9 and 28 mm in length. Males have a groove running the length of the body, in which females are found. Eggs may appear in feces and urine, depending on species infecting the host. A saline sedimentation procedure is used to detect eggs in manure. Fecal  examination is most useful in early infection because egg production declines as infection... Eggs do not have an operculum and most are spindle shaped. In some species, a spine is  present on one end of the egg.              

Size: 130–280 × 38–85 µm, depending on species

Clinical features: Disease results from the host reaction to the presence of parasite eggs in tissue. Clinical signs may occur in heavy infections, including diarrhea, anemia, and wasting.  

Blood flukes make cattle raising difficult where the disease is endemic. Adults live in blood vessels but deposit eggs outside them in the wall of the intestines or bladder. Much irritation is caused by eggs. Abscesses form and rupture. Both diarrhea and constipation are seen; blood and mucus are found in feces with eggs. When anemia occurs over an extended time, the animals loose weight. Schistosoma bovis eggs also irritate the bladder wall. Blood may then appear in urine. 

Control:
Reduce populations of water snails serving as intermediate hosts by pumping and storing water for 24 hours or use of water troughs.                                                                  


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